Q: Should we neuter Max, our 3-year-old Jack Russell terrier? Our veterinarian described the behavioral benefits of neutering, but those are not an issue for us. Max is healthy and lots of fun, and we just want him to live forever.

A: Keeping Max around as long as possible is a good enough reason to have your veterinarian neuter him, because many studies show that sterilized dogs live longer than what veterinarians call “intact” dogs.

The first study to examine the association between canine sterilization and life span was published in 1982.

Researchers found that intact male dogs lived an average of 4.8 years, while neutered males lived 9.9 years. Intact females lived 4.7 years, and spayed females lived 8.6 years.

In another study involving 721 dogs, the intact dogs lived an average of 9.6 years, while those that had been sterilized averaged 11.9 years.

A third study reviewed the records of 70,574 dogs constituting 185 breeds; 43.6% were intact, and 56.4% were sterilized. The intact dogs lived an average of 7.9 years, while the sterilized dogs survived 9.4 years.

In this large study, the causes of death differed based on sterilization status. Intact dogs were more likely to die of infectious disease, trauma, vascular disease or degenerative disorders, while sterilized dogs more often died of cancer or immune-mediated disease.

The researchers noted that intact dogs probably die more often from infectious diseases because their immune systems are suppressed by progesterone and testosterone, reproductive hormones secreted by their sex organs.

More often, I see their traumatic deaths: Intact males get a whiff of females in heat, escape their enclosures and get hit by cars far more often than neutered males.

When gender was factored into this study, sterilization increased life expectancy by 13.8% in males and 26.3% in females.

The greater sterilization benefit enjoyed by females is likely due to the high prevalence of fatal uterine infection and mammary cancer in intact females.

Incidentally, it’s not just neutered male dogs that enjoy long lives. The report’s authors cite a study of historical Korean eunuchs and a 1969 study of intellectually disabled men whose testicles had been removed to prove that castrated men experience the same extension of life span.

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Q: My cat, Reggie, saw his veterinarian yesterday for diarrhea. She prescribed a probiotic, which is helping, but neither of us could figure out what caused his diarrhea, because his food hasn’t changed and he doesn’t go outdoors.

Today, I realized that my home is full of ladybugs, which fascinate Reggie, so he may have eaten some.

Could they have caused his diarrhea?

A: It’s certainly possible. Some species of ladybugs emit a foul odor when disturbed, and they taste bad when eaten.

Ingestion of ladybugs, particularly Asian lady beetles, can cause drooling, appetite loss, vomiting and diarrhea in pets.

When large quantities of ladybugs are eaten, they can attach to the lining of the mouth and elsewhere along the gastrointestinal tract, emitting a corrosive substance that causes severe hemorrhage and even death. Most cases have been reported in dogs.

Ladybugs eat aphids and other plant-eating insects, and some shelter indoors during the winter.

To keep them outside where they won’t entice Reggie, seal any openings in your home, and make sure your screens fit tightly.

Lee Pickett DVM practices companion animal medicine in North Carolina. Click here to ask her questions for her weekly column. The opinions expressed are her own.